Ph.D., Princeton University, 1969
Modern Baltic and Finnish history
Courses Recently Taught
- The Baltic States since 1918
- Empire and Ethnicity in Modern Russian History
- Ethnic Relations in the Post-Soviet West
- Modern Scandinavia and the Baltic States
- Estonian Culture and Civilization
- Finland in the 20th Century
- Uralic Peoples and Cultures
- Nordic and Baltic States in the European Union
Co-editor with Kristi Kukk, Soviet Deportations in Estonia: Impact and Legacy (Tartu: Tartu University Press, 2007).
"National Identity in Finland and Estonia, 1905-1917," Norbert Angermann, et al., eds., Ostseeprovinzen, Baltische Staaten und das Nationale (Münster: Lit Verlag, 2005), pp. 343-56.
“Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Estonian Nationalism Revisited” in Nations and Nationalism, 9 (2003), pp. 129-47.
Estonia and the Estonians, 2nd updated ed. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute Press, 2001; also in Finnish (1989) and Hungarian translation (2001).
“Estonia in the 1990s,” Journal of Baltic Studies, 32:1 (2001), pp. 19-43
“The Baltic States After the Collapse of the Soviet Union,” Hungarian Studies, 14:2 (2000), pp. 275-284 and 15:1 (2001). pp. 163-65.
“Democratization and Political Development in Estonia, 1987-1996” in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott, eds., The Consolidation of Democracy in East Central Europe. Cambridge, 1997, pp. 334-74
“Ethnic Relations and Conflict in the Baltic States” in W. Raymond Duncan and G. Paul Holman, eds.,Ethnic Nationalism and Regional Conflict: The Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Boulder, Colo., 1994, pp. 155-82
“Finland and Estonia: Cultural and Political Relations, 1917-1940” in Journal of Baltic Studies, 18 (1987), pp. 5-20.
Co-author with Edward C. Thaden, et al., Russification in the Baltic Provinces and Finland, 1855-1914. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1981.
Current Research Projects
- Cultural Survival and National Identity: The Baltic Case
- The Rise and Impact of Literacy in the Baltic Region
- Comparative Levels of Development in the Interwar Baltic States and Finland